On Monday of this week, two scientific papers were released by two separate teams that studied melting patterns on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The groups conducted their studies independently, and used different methods to conduct their studies. They did, however, come to the same conclusion.
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet sits on a bowl shaped depression of earth, with the base of the ice below sea level. Ice on the edge of that bowl has been melting as it comes into contact with warming ocean water. As that ice melts, it destabilizes the rest of the ice sheet, starting a chain reaction that will cause it to slide off the continent into the ocean. The studies found that the melting has passed the point of no return. Even if the water temperature goes back down, the progress of the glaciers cannot be stopped. In fact, they will continue to accelerate into the ocean.
The cause is not clear. Scientists think it has something to do with stronger winds stirring up the ocean and raising water temperatures. Some think the stronger winds are caused by increased temperatures in other parts of the world due to global warming. Others think that the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica has added energy to the winds. Natural variability may also be a factor.
The result, according to the studies, will be an additional rise of global sea levels of up to twelve feet over the next few centuries. That is on top of other predictions, which do not take the melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet into account. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has already warned that sea levels could rise up to three feet by the end of the century without significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. With the new discovery, that estimate will have to be raised.
We are not going to go into whether global warming is caused by humans or not. People’s emotions tend to overwhelm their brains in such discussions.
Let me state one undeniable fact: climate change, whatever the cause, exists.
What will the impact of rising sea levels be? In America, a rise of up to four feet would inundate the homes of 3.7 million Americans. Cities like Miami, New Orleans, Boston, and New York would all be vulnerable.
It is already happening. The question is: what are we doing to prepare for it? The collective decisions that we make over the coming decades will determine what kind of toll climate change will take on human lives.
The first half of this morning’s Torah portion, Bechukotai, records a series of blessings and curses which will befall the Israelites depending on their adherence to the covenant with God. Im bechukotai telechu… it begins. “If you follow My laws and faithfully observe My commandments, I will grant your rains in their season, so that the earth shall yield its produce and the trees of the field their fruit…”
The blessings are everything that ancient people could want: abundant rain, successful crops, peace in the land, strength to defeat their enemies, and a constant awareness of God’s Presence and love in their midst.
The curses are the opposite. The sky will turn to iron, the land will not produce food, disease will spread, famine will ensue, enemies will terrorize the land, and eventually the nation will be exiled.
Whether the blessings or the curses befall the Israelites is entirely up to them. The national fate will be determined by whether the people follow the mitzvot, that is, the commandments outlined in the Torah that are the Jewish people’s covenental obligations to God.
As moderns, the idea of the weather or the conduct of enemy nations being determined by our actions is a troubling theology.
What these blessings and curses are describing is not so much theology, however, but human nature. The extent to which a community embraces shared values determines to a large extent whether a crisis will result in blessing or curse.
When the oceans rise, the impact on human lives will be determined by how we have prepared for that event, and how our society cares for the people that are affected. Developed countries will fare better than poor countries. We know this, because that is what always happens in natural disasters. But human societies, whether in local communities, in nations, or globally, have it in their hands to do something about it. The question is: will we?
Unfortunately, the answer is probably: not very likely.
Every living creature has a biological imperative to perpetutate its own existence. Human beings are no different. It is built into our DNA. But that imperative operates at the individual level rather than the collective. Individuals tend to do things which enhance their own abilities to survive, thrive, and repopulate. It seems that there is no collective biological imperative for the perpetuation of humanity’s existence.
We form groups for the benefits they bring to our own ability to survive. We make choices about what we think will further our own well-being, but are far less inclined to make decisions that will benefit humanity, especially when it will involve some sort of self-sacrifice.
This is not a moral point. It is a matter of biology and genetics.
So many human civilizations over the millenia have ignored the warning signs and gone down paths that led to their collapse. The biological imperative is for individual survival, not for collective survival. That perhaps explains why so many societies today engage in wasteful and self-destructive behaviors. We are not naturally inclined to do what is best for humanity as a whole.
So we pollute our environment, we use up too much of our fresh water, and we drive other species into extinction. Why? Because there is nothing in our DNA to stop us.
The Torah challenges us to overcome our biology. The mitzvot, the commandments, are a comprehensive system of laws that govern all aspects of our lives: how we treat ourselves, how we function within our families and our communities, and how we are to treat the strangers among us.
Our tradition also tells us how to function within the context of a larger society that is not Jewish.
And of course, Jewish life is full of rituals that bind us through the observance of sacred practices and the marking of sacred time to Jewish people of the past, present and future. Ritual also enables us to express our yearnings to God.
In asking us to live by the mitzvot, God challenges us to rise above our genetics.
To follow halakhah, the Jewish system of commandments, is to impose an unnatural code of ethics on our human interactions, and to instill a deep sense of humility into our relationship with Creation.
Ki li kol ha-aretz “For the entire Earth is Mine,” God declares at Mount Sinai before giving us the Ten Commandments. As Jews in a covenantal relationship with God, we are asked to remember this at all times, and not treat the earth as something that exists only for our exploitation. As God’s possession, the earth must be treated with reverence.
In the kedushah we recite the words kadosh kadosh kadosh, Adonai tzeva-ot, m’lo kol ha-aretz kevodo. “Holy, holy, holy, the Lord of hosts, the fullness of the the entire earth is God’s glory.” How might human treatment of our planet differ if we saw every element in the natural world as a manifestation of God’s glory? Think about the impact on things like pollution, deforestation, and carbon emissions. Consider how our own behavior might change with regard to the kinds of plants we put in our gardens, the length of our showers, and the things we choose to purchase, if we were conscious of utilizing resources that belonged to God.
The Torah is speaking to a particular community: the Jewish people. The Torah’s way is the Jewish recipe for overcoming our basic human instincts. But the underlying principle is universal. It applies to all peoples separately, and to humanity as a whole. God asks all of us to be more than our DNA. To work for the flourishing of all people, and to treat the earth with humility.
As evidenced by our behavior, it seems that humanity does not have an especially humble posture with regard to the earth.
A detail in the presentation of curses reveals an insightful point about human behavior. The curses do not all happen at once. They come in waves. After each wave, we are offered a chance to return to God. If we do not take advantage of that opportunity, then the next wave will strike. One gets a sense that God really wants Israel to redeem itself, to prevent further curses. But the Torah describes it as almost inevitable that the community will not be able to reverse course. Curses will follow more curses, with people never recognizing that their fate is the result of having gone off course from the path of blessing.
The cycle ends with the land desolate and the people in exile. Only then will a small remnant realize their mistakes and the mistakes of their ancestors and return to the covenant. When that happens, God will be waiting, eager to take them back.
Weird weather, rising ocean temperatures and acidity, melting glaciers, more powerful hurricanes, shrinking fresh water reserves – as we see sign after sign pointing to increasingly severe consequences of climate change, what are we going to do?
When will we start to take real action? The kind of action that calls on us to make lifestyle changes, to transform how and where we live, and what we eat. Action that will shift how our economy is structured and how success is measured?
Humanity’s track record is not great. We tend to not be good about making investments in preventative strategies for catastrophes that are not yet upon us.
Whether the challenge is man-made or not, our responses are always in our own hands. The way that we come together as a community will determine whether this challenge will become a curse or not.